Jagfar tarihi

A Brief Dictionary of Medieval Bulgar Geographical Names and Terms Found in "Djagfar Tarihy"

Toa concise dictionary of medieval Bulgarian geographical names and terms found in "Djagfar tarihy". Compiled on the basis of extracts from the full text of "Djagfar Tarihi" and contains information about the lost parts of the code.

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Avars - Manchu tribe.

Ära Bazaar - cm. Aka Basar.

Agidel - 1) the Bulgarian name of the rivers Belaya, Kama (from the mouth of the Belaya to the confluence with the Volga) and the Volga (below the mouth of the Kama). Means "Silver River", why the Bulgars were sometimes called "Silver Bulgars"; 2) the Bulgarian province of the epoch of the III emirate.

Azak dingese - Sea of Azov.

Azanovichi (Azanlilar) - Bulgar Emir dynasty of the descendants of Emir Azan and his son Gazi-Baradj.

Azerbaijan - 1) Northwestern Iran, Media; 2) Azerbaijan.

Ak - 1) divine, mourning; 2) east; 3) silver; 4) white.

Aka - a large river with a strong current.

Aka (Aka-Idel) - the river Oka.

Aka Basar - 1) river pier, port; 2) the name of the pier of the city of Bolgar, later turned into "Aga Bazaar".

Akajirs - 1) the ethnogroup of the Bulgars, also called "Agachirs"; 2) the senior part of the retinue of the Bulgar feudal lord or army.

Ak-Balyn - North-Eastern Rus'.

Ak-Balyns - Great Russians.

Akbikul - fortified balik of the city of Kazan.

Akbi-kul lake in Kazan.

Ak Bulgar Yorty (“Bulgarian State”) is the name of the Bulgarian state.

Ak dingez - White Sea.

Ak Iort - state.

Ak Masguts - massagets of Kazakhstan.

Ak-Chirmyshi - Muslim chirmyshs.

Alabuga - 1) the tower of the castle "Alamir-Sultan", in honor of which the balik Alabuga was named; 2) see Alamir-Sultan.

Alamir-Sultan - a castle built by the Bulgarian king Ibrahim on the site of the legendary grave of Alamir-Sultan (Alexander the Great) in 985. Later - a balik called Alabuga. Now - the city of Yelabuga.

Ala-Tura - cm. Kazan.

Albat - Bulgarian menzel, founded by Alyp-biy (Albat) between the mouths of the Volga and Dzhaik.

Alp (alyp) - a spirit that obeys God.

Altyn Bash - Rome, Italy.

Altynbash people Romans, Italians.

Altish - Bulgar city. It was formed as a result of the merger of six villages, for which one Altysh fortress was built.

Alman — Germany.

Almantsy - 1) the Germans; 2) Germans.

Anar - king (from the Sumerian en - lord).

Anatysh — Denmark.

Anatyshtsy - Danes.

ang - water, full-flowing river.

Angles - the name of the parts of the coast guard, which meant: "standing on guard near the water."

Anchians (anchylar) - 1) originally - Hun units from Iranians, Slavs and Bulgars of Ukraine, who guarded the borders of Ukraine and went on campaigns together with the Huns; 2) Ukrainians.

Apas - Abkhazian.

Arabs - 1) Afroasian peoples; 2) Arabs.

Ar-Kala - Russified name of the city of Echke-Kazan (Archa-Kala, Archa-Balik, etc.), used by the translator "Dzhagfar Tarihi".

Arkoch - Bulgarian city, built in the winter-spring of 1171 at the request of Kochubiy - the son of the Ukrainian-Moldovan prince Ivan Berladnik ("Dzhan Kashan", "Dzhan Burdzhan", "Buril-dai"). After the death of his father, Kochubiy, whose mother was the Bulgarian Pechenegina Arjan, was hired with three thousand Anchians for the Bulgarian service. King Otyak settled the Kochubians in Arkocha and its district, where they were engaged in shipbuilding, navigation, protection of river routes and caravans, served in the Bulgar fleet. In 1174, the Tarkhan of the Kumyk Bulgars, the father of bek Elbek Markas, complained to Otyak about the unfriendly actions of the Shirvan bek, who had imprisoned his father-in-law, the Khondjak bek Sadretdin, in a zindan. Kan sent the Cumans of Khan Bashkort and the fleet of Kochubia to help Markas. Markas with Bashkort and part of the Salchis (sailors) occupied Derbent, and Kochubiy with most of the fleet tried to break through the Kura to the Azerbaijani Khondzhak in order to connect with the Khondzhaks. But the Georgian troops attacked the Georgian and Azerbaijani Khondzhaks, and the Khondzhak Bulgars could not connect with the Bulgar fleet. Kochubiy himself was surrounded and barely able to escape from the enemy ring. Protecting themselves from enemy arrows, the salchis held boats over their heads. The people of Arkoch, dissatisfied with the increase in taxes under Chelbir, became agitated, and the Kan threw Kochubiy (at the beginning of 1181) into a dungeon. In retaliation, the people of Arkoch let a detachment of Novgorod robbers pass by their city. When the punitive army arrived at Arkoch, the Kochubians fled deep into the Vetluzh forests and stayed there until the summer of 1183. After the raid of Vsevolod of Suzdal, Chelbir, needing a fleet, forgave Kochubiy and his people and promised them a reduction in taxes. However, the Kan broke his promise very soon, and in 1186 the Arkochians revolted again. The royal army and the Suzdal fleet helping Chelbir laid siege to Arkoch, and the people of Arkoch surrendered. The fugitive Russians among them were handed over by Chelbir to Vsevolod. The Arkochians took part in the 1219 campaign against Radzhil (Radilov), but in the spring of 1220 they again rebelled against the royal extortions. The intercession of Gazan, who was married to the daughter of Kochubiy, saved the Arkochians from reprisal after the Suzdal raid on Uchel, but Arkoch was renamed Mamysh - in memory of the punisher killed by the rebels. The son of Kochubiy also took this name. In 1242, Gazi-Baradj invited most of the Arkochians to serve the Kypchak. Later, the Mamyshtsy participated in the destruction of Saray and Nizhny Novgorod. Vladimir, Ustyug (1446) and in other campaigns. Only in 1556 did the Russian troops manage to finally destroy Arkoch-Mamysh, whose ulugbek was Mamysh-Birde.

Arsky il - Arsk province of Bulgar of the epoch of the III emirate.

Arsu (later, after 1220 Kazan-su) - the Kazanka River.

Artan - 1) the Baltic States; 2) Lithuania.

Artans - 1) Balts; 2) Lithuanians.

Archa - Bulgarian city, the modern city of Arsk. It was originally also called "New Archa".

Archa-Kala - one of the names of the city of Echke-Kazan ("Inner Kazan"), which entered the Russian language in the forms "Arsk Town" or "Arsk Ostrog". It was also called "Iske Archa" ("Old Arsk") and was the center of the Arsky il.

Ares - Finnish-speaking tribes.

Aryak - Armenian.

ace - one of the old Aryan names of the Supreme God. It also had the form "Khas".

As Bagana ("Divine Pillar") - 1) a lighthouse in Spain; 2) Spain.

Askal - cm. Esegel.

Astarkhan - Bulgar city founded by Astarkhan in 1122 (Musa ibn Khalil); now - the city of Astrakhan.

aces - the Murdas name of the Sindians-Ura (Aryans), why the Ases were also called the descendants of the Ura-Aryans: Bulgars, Massagets, Alans, Burtases and others.

Atalik-muncha - Kazan bath, erected next to Dair-muncha with the money of Atalik in 1509 and destroyed by the Russian army in 1530. It had a hipped roof, which is why it was called the people and Shatrova.

Atbuga (asbuga) - bison, bison.

Atryach - 1) Troy; 2) a city in Mountain Bulgaria, renamed in 931 into Shongyt, and then returned the name Atryach.

Ashrafids - Bulgarian emir dynasty of descendants of Kan Gabdulla Chelbir, named after Kan Ashraf Baluk.


badjanaki - 1) the union of Turkic tribes, headed by the Sabans and called in Kievan Rus "Pechenegs"; 2) one of the names of Sabans.

bai - A noble, wealthy man.

Baygul - Bulgar province in Siberia of the era of the 1st emirate.

Baiguly - 1) Khanty and Mansi of Siberia; 2) residents of Baigul province.

Baylak — Poland.

Baylaks - Poles.

Baitube - Bulgarian province of the era of the 1st emirate with the center in the city of Bulyar.

Baytyubians - residents of the Baityub province; they were also called "Bulyars".

Tank (bek) - a high-ranking feudal lord, prince, grand duke.

Bakalda (Bakaltay) - 1) bay; 2) harbor, port, pier.

Bak-su - Southern Bug river.

Ball (Bul) - 1) free man, master; 2) one of the names of the Supreme God.

Balik - 1) a small fortress, prison, fort; 2) a small town; 3) fortified suburbs, settlements, districts of a large city.

Balikbashi - governor of a small town and its district, as well as a suburb or district of a large city.

Ball-and-stan — Palestine.

Balkan - a fortification built by the Russians in the city of Bolgar on the banks of the Balkan-su river to protect the local possessions of the Kazan Spassky Monastery. Before the uprising of Razin (Razi-Kazak), the Russian garrison of the fortress consisted of Cossacks, Mishar and Bashkort Bulgars, Nogais and Kalmyks. Once, a Bulgar noticed that the monks had turned the tomb (turbe) of Mohammed into a barn for pigs and demanded that the monks remove the unclean animals from the territory of the sacred city. However, the Russian governor seized and executed him. Then the head of the Mishar Bulgars, Aibulat, conspired with the Cossacks, Kalmyks and Nogais and killed the governor together with them, after which they expelled the monks along with their pigs, burned the Balkans and fled in different directions. Aibulat himself with his Bulgars went to Bashkortstan, to the seid Jagfar, the grandson of Jan-Gali. On the way, he stopped at Bulyar, and the Bulgars from the Russian garrison that was there ran to him at night ... By order of Seid Jagfar, Aibulat did not give the Russian governors and serving Tatars in Cheremshan to eat or drink for seven years before Razin. However, he never touched civilians. So, they said that before the capture of Yar Challov, he allowed all Russians who wanted to leave to the other side of the Kama. And piety never left him. When he saw that the infidels had broken some of the stones of the old Chalyn cemetery, and laid others in the foundations of their houses and sheds, he burned the houses of the defilers and took away the surviving gravestones. He did all this in cold blood under the fire of the enemy, who suddenly appeared from the other side of the Chulman. At the request of the inhabitants of the Muslim village, the stones were left in it. And this aul was founded at the grave of martyr Muslim, who came here after the battle with Khan Timur in 1278 and died of grievous wounds ... In that aul, everyone was desperate daredevils, and infidels rarely dared to appear in it. Many Muslims and Azerbaijanis joined Aibulat. And the village of Azna-kai was founded by Azamat, a descendant of Kermek, who also came here after the battle with Khan Timur ... The leader of the Cossacks Razin heard about Aibulat and went to connect with him, but did not have time ... In one of the skirmishes, the Russians wounded Aibulat, and the serving Tatars caught up and seized him on the river Baraj-Chishma. The Russian governor told him that he would fulfill his dying request for his prowess. Aibulat asked the governor to execute him in Bolgar, from where the souls of the Bulgar martyrs went straight to paradise, which was done. Mulla Ishbulat buried Aybulat in the Tsar’s tyurbe… Since then, the Russians have never set up fortresses in Bolgar, considering this place unlucky for themselves… houses” (P. Karashev).

Baltavar - 1) the name of the coat of arms of the Dulo clan - Ψ; 2) leader, ruler; 3) Bulgarian city, the modern Ukrainian city of Poltava.

Balyn - 1) the land of Belarusians and Great Russians; 2) North-Eastern Rus', Moscow Rus' (Moscow-Russian state); 3) the city of Suzdal, founded on the site of the Bulgar balik Balyn.

bungee - 1) the Bulgarian name of the city of Phanagoria in the Sea of \u200b\u200bAzov; 2) the city - the center of the Bulgarian province of Mardan-Bellak, founded in 925. It had 15 baliks and 15 towers, of which five had gates (Musa ibn Khalil).

Baraj - Islamic-Bulgarian (Massaget-Burdzhanian in origin) name of the Sumerian Bulgar Alp-King Mardukan, who had the appearance of a winged and sometimes serpent-tailed dragon. Mardukan Baraj was considered the guardian of vitality and security of the Bulgar people and the Bulgar state. The Bulgars also used the Hunno-Manchu names of Baraja - "Leu" and "Elbegen".

Baraj Chishma - Sheshma river.

bargil - Persian Empire, Iran.

Baryn - 1) Alp of victory; he was also called Buri; 2) the Ukrainian grouping of several Bulgar clans, called in Kievan Rus "Berendeys".

Barynjar - 1) Bulgar clan; 2) see Nur-Suvar.

Baryntu - cm. Nur-Suvar.

Basma - certificate, pass, certificate, safe-conduct, permission issued by kings and officials and certified by special signs.

baht (bata) - ruler, leader, prince, king, leader.

Batavyl - 1) princely rate; 2) see Khorysdan.

Batlik - Vetluga river.

Batyr - 1) the head of the clan; 2) winner; 3) a small specific princeling; 4) the head of the district.

Batysh - 1) "west" in Old Bulgarian; 2) a Slavic-speaking tribe, formed as a result of the merger of part of the Bulgars with the Iranians and Slavs and called in Kievan Rus "Vyatichi". Vyatichi are the ancestors of the Don and Voronezh (Ryazan) Cossacks.

Bahadir - 1) a knight; 2) a service feudal lord; 3) well done, hero.

Bashkort - 1) the Bulgarian Ural province of the epoch of the 1st emirate, which was called “Tamta” until 1193; 2) the Bulgarian province of the era of the III emirate, which occupied the southern part of the Bashkort province of the era of the I emirate.

Bashkorts - 1) originally - an Iranian-speaking tribe, which later became part of the Ugrians of Kazakhstan and transferred their Iranian name to them; 2) the common name of the Ugrians of Kazakhstan; 3) since 1193 - the regional name of the Bulgars of the Bashkort province (Bashkorts).

Bashtu - the official Bulgarian name of the city of Kyiv, founded in 620 by order of the Kan Kurbat (Kubrat). In addition, the Bulgars called the city "Kyi" (hence its Slavic name "Kyiv"), and its citadel - "Shambat".

Beylik - principality, region; the term "tyuba" was also used to designate the region.

Beck - cm. tank.

Bellac - cm. Mardan Bellak,

Bellacians - cm. Mardanians.

Berjuly - 1) Sumerian Afroasians; 2) the Sumerian population, who adopted the Afroasian languages (Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and others); 3) the population of the Volga-Urals and Sumer subordinated to the Bulgars.

Bershud - Bulgar principality in the Kama region. In 865, it was included in the Bulgarian state as a specific principality, and in 922 it was liquidated.

besermeny — 1) one of the names of the Bulgars, who always remained in Ura (Volga-Ural); 2) the Massaget-Turkmen nickname for the Bulgars, which was later adopted by the Russians, Kipchaks and Mongols; 3) since the Bulgars were Muslims, the name "Besermen" received one more meaning - "Muslim".

Bee (bu) - 1) tribal prince or princess; 2) headman.

Biy - this is how the term “bi” (“boo”) is conveyed in the text.

Biysu - Bulgarian province of the era of the 1st emirate in the north-east of Europe.

Biy-su - Pechora River.

Bisui people - 1) Komi 2) residents of the Biysu province.

Bika - madam, princess.

Bilemche - an official who collected taxes (tribute).

Biste Sadum — Sweden.

Bish Kalpak - Bulgar city. It was formed as a result of the merger of five villages of the Kalpak Bulgar clan, for which one fortress Bish Kalpak was built.

Bogyl - mop.

Bogyltau (“Kopna-Gora”) is a hill on the right bank of the canal-“channel” Bulak in Kazan, now called the “Kremlin”.

Boygal - 1) a lake formed by the Alp-Bika Boygal (Baigal) and named after her; modern Lake Baikal; 2) big fish, seal, whale.

Bulgarian - a city, the first capital of the Bulgar state, the center of the Bulgarian province, bearing the following names: in the VIII century - 820 - "Mardukan", in 820 - 1028 - "Bolgar", in 1028 - 1183 - "Ibrahim", in 1183 - 1361 - "Bolgar", in 1361 - 1431 - "Ulug Bolgar", in 1431 - 1557 - "Bolgar", in 1557 - 1957 - "Bolgars", in 1957 - 1991 - "Kuibyshev", since 1991 of the year - again, "Bolgar". Musa ibn Khalil writes that the Mumin or Tash-Balik citadel was located in the center of Bolgar, the main mosque of which, Ismaildan, was built on the site of the Khasan mosque (it burned down in 1214). Around the citadel there were baliks Kaves rabat, Baryn, Burjan (Kazy Yorty was located here, built on the site of the Marduan mosque), Altyn rabat (stone Altyn-muncha), Komesh rabat, Appak Yorty, Bally rabat, Ibrahim, Tazik Yorty (stone caravanserai , later also called "Men Bulyar"), Tar, Men Oile, Chire, Bakyr, Sain (named after Emir Shamgun), Shalkan, Gyulistan. Some parts of the last three baliks were allocated under the Bashkak Yorty ("Ambassador's Court") of the Kypchak ambassador. All these baliks were surrounded by one powerful wall. Between the citadel and the Tazik Yorty there was a huge market square Kyzyl Maidan, and on it - Kyzyl Jami. Each balik had towers or gates in the wall, which bore the names of baliks, except for the Gulistan balik. Opposite Kaves rabat was the outer balik of Kukre, where the church "Gurji Emir" was located. Between this part of the city and Idel there were Suvar baliks (there was a stone Suvar-muncha), Khalja or Khorezm, Tashayak, Kura, Balchuk, Kyshlyk. Separately from the rest of the baliks, the city pier Aka Basar and the Uylak balik were located. Half of all this under Musa ibn Khalil was already in ruins, but still the number of inhabitants reached 10 thousand people, who were joined in the summer by 15 to 20 thousand pilgrims and visiting merchants.

The city was savagely destroyed and turned into ruins by the Russian Volga fleet in 1431 and 1487 - at the time when the Bulgar fleet was repulsing the attack of the Russian Cherdyn (Kama) fleet at Tashbash at the mouth of the Vyatka. In 1487, 12 thousand Russian sailors took part in the attack on Bolgar. At the same time, 15 thousand citizens and pilgrims and one thousand Bulgarian Cossacks died. The defeat of the Russian caravan in Kazan in 1505 began with the fact that several Bulgarians found participants in the defeat of the Bolgar in it and demanded compensation for damage, but were refused (Musa ibn Khalil).

Bolgar al-Jadid ("New Bolgar") - see. Kazan.

Bulgarian ile - the Middle Volga Bulgarian province of the era of the 1st emirate.

Bulgarians - residents of the city of Bolgar and the Bulgarian province.

Big Room - modern Asia Minor, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine.

Boryn - Bulgarian balik, the modern city of Lipetsk. The Bulgars also called this balik "Boryn-Inesh" and "Yauchi".

Boryn-Inesh - 1) the Voronezh river; 2) see Boryn.

Boyar - 1) priest; 2) representative, leader.

Brig (birik) - regional militia.

Boo - cm. bi.

Boole - cm. Ball.

Bula-Idel - the first name of the modern river Kichi-Cheremshan (Small Cheremshan). After the "War of Biys" Almysh renamed Bula-Idel to Dyau-Shir. In 948, King Mohammed, enraged by the breakthrough of the Turkmens to Bulyar, evicted the Dyau-Shir chirmysh and subash to the Bakhta River and ordered to call Dyau-Shir "Kichi-Cheremshan", and Bakhta - "Dyau-Shir" (Musa ibn Khalil).

Bulgar — Bulgaria.

Bulgar dingeze (“Bulgar Sea”) is the medieval name of the Caspian Sea.

Bulgaria - cm. Bulgar Yorty.

Bulgar Yorty - the name of the Bulgar state of the 9th - 16th centuries. The Bulgar state was also called the yurt, the kingdom and the land of the Bolgars, the Great Bulgaria, the Great Bolgars, the Volga, Kama or Volga-Kama Bulgaria - Bulgaria, and also simply Bulgaria. The history of the Bulgar state is divided into three epochs: 1) the epoch of the 1st emirate (865-1236); 2) the era of the II emirate (1236-1437); 3) the era of the III emirate (1437 - 1584).

Bulgars - 1) a tribe that was formed in the Volga-Urals more than 15 thousand years ago as a result of the union of seven Oghuz-Turkic and Saklan (Northern Iranian) clans and was originally called "Idel" - "seven clans". The Bulgar tribe is also called in the literature "Bulgarians" and "Proto-Bulgarians". The Bulgars of Europe were divided into the Bulgars of Ukraine, called "Kara-Bulgars" ("Western" or "Black Bulgars"), the Bulgars of Ciscaucasia, called "Burdzhans" and the Bulgars of the Volga-Urals. In 737, a mass of Burdjans, and in 820, Black Bulgars converted to Islam. This is largely due to the fact that Islamic views grew on the foundation of the Bulgaro-Sumerian traditions.

The Bulgar tribe participated in the formation and is the main ancestor of the following modern nations and nationalities: Bulgars (including parts of the Siberian Turks), Turks, Karachays, Balkars, Kumyks, Crimean Turks, Karakalpaks, Azerbaijanis, Chuvashs, Ukrainians, Danube Bulgarians, Hungarians, Gagauz;

2) part of the Bulgar tribe, who left the Volga-Urals for the Middle East 12 thousand years ago and founded the Sumerian state. One part of the Sumerian Bulgars merged with other Middle Eastern neighbors, and the other, who lived on the territory of Turkey, became the basis of the Turkish nation;

3) the nationality that was formed on the basis of the merger of mainly Bulgar, Hunno-Manchurian, Finno-Ugric and Oghuz-Sabanian groups of the Volga-Urals in the II-IX centuries and adopted the name, Oguz language and ideology of the Bulgars and the cultural traditions of the Bulgars, Hunno-Manchurian and sabanov.

Bulymer Great Russian city of Vladimir.

Bulyar — 1) the name of the 1st Hun dynasty and the territory of the Old Bulgarian kingdom of the 2nd — 4th centuries AD. e. ("Bulyar Yorty"); 2) the city - the center of the Bulgarian Zakamsk province of Baityub and the capital of the Bulgarian state of the era of the 1st emirate, In 1028 - 1183 it was also called "Bolgar", in 1183 - 1236 - "Ulug Bolgar" ("Great Bolgar") or "Men Bulyar". There were 30 baliks and towers in Bulyar, which is why they said: “The Bulyar wall has thirty towers” (Musa ibn Khalil).

Bulyarians — 1) the name of the citizens of the 1st Hun state; 2) see Baytyubians.

Burjan - 1) Bulgarian lands in Ciscaucasia; 2) see Ulak-Bolgar.

Burdzhan - 1) the common ancestors of the North Caucasian peoples - the Karachays of the Balkars and the Kumyks. Part of the Burdjans also took part in the formation of the Bulgar people; 2) Karachais and Balkars; 3) balkars.

Burjan tele - the caste Turkic language of the Bulgar mullahs of the VIII - XIV centuries, saturated with Turkic-Hunnic words. At the turn of the XIV - XV centuries, it fell into disuse.

Buri tea - Dnepr River.

Burtas - 1) one of the regions of the province of Mardan-Bellak; 2) a large city - the center of the Burtas region of the Mardan-Bellak province.

Burtases - 1) a part of the Massagetian tribe of the Russes (Uruses), which became part of the Bulgar people; 2) Bulgars of the Burtas region.

Burunda - cm. Nur-Suvar.


Vezir - head of the tsarist government, first minister.

Great Hin — India.


Gazan - cm. Kazan.

galij - 1) the city of Ladoga; 2) the city of Novgorod the Great; 3) Bulgar balik, the modern city of Galich (Mersky).

Galijians - 1) originally - one of the names of the Scandinavians; 2) Novgorodians, who in 1111 managed to capture Northern Shud from Bulgaria, located between White Lake and Sukhona.

Garnat - 1) Spain; 2) the city of Grenada.

Mountain Bulgaria (Tauly Bulgar) - the Pre-Volga part of Bulgaria, called by the Russians the "Mountain Side".

Huzar - lightly armed warrior of the third line; was also called "chirmysh" and "aidar".

Gurja — Georgia.

Gurdjian uram - one of the quarters of the Kasimov balik (district) of Kazan, inhabited by immigrants from Georgia (mainly Armenians). P. Karashev says that he was at first on the mountain. Once the pregnant wife of the headman of the quarter, going down for water, fell and lost her child. Angered by this, the headman in 1552 pointed out to the Russian troops a weak spot in the fortifications of the balik, and they took Kasim. For this help, Ivan the Terrible allowed the Armenians to settle under the mountain, on the very bank of the Kaban, and occupy the homes of Muslims. When the Russian army took Kazan, this headman with his sons killed the wives, old people and children of Muslims and robbed even the dead. The rest of the Armenians condemned them and refused to seize the property of the Muslims, so only the headman and his sons did it. When Mamysh-Birde once came to Kazan, the Armenians themselves seized the headman and his sons and handed them over to the emir as criminals. But he said that the Bulgarian kings granted the Armenians the right to judge the members of their community themselves. Then the Armenians locked the villains in the house and, placing a barrel of gunpowder under it, blew them up...

Gurdjians - Georgians.

Gul-Asma - cm. Kul-Asma.


Damya - cm. Tamya.

Damya keshe - one of the names of the Circassians (Abkhazians, Adyghes, Kabardians, Circassians); were also called kasheks and apas.

Damya-Tarkhan - cm. Tamya-Tarkhan.

Danga (tanka) - 1) fish scales; 2) silver coin; from this Bulgarian term came the Russian word "money".

Dar al-Uloom (house of sciences) - university.

Power - The Bulgarian state of 865 - 1584.

Jalda - Crimea.

Djalmat - Bulgarian family.

Djalmat (Almat) - a military balik founded by Talib in 956 under the name "Talib" and in 957 repulsed the Turkmen raid. Later, the name "Jalmat" ("Almat") was assigned to it. Now - the city of Almetyevsk.

Jam (Jamal) - the extreme north of Bulgaria (including the Yamal Peninsula), named after the first Aryan-Idel king Jama (Sham).

Jamail (shamail) - originally - an image on various materials (wood, leather, metal, glass, stone, matter, and others) of a fantastic city or palace of the first king of Ura Jam and Baraj with magical signs or an inscription. The Bulgarians hung this image in yurts (houses) and believed that it protected from evil and brought happiness to the settlement or house. Jamail is the Sabanian name for this image, meaning "House (or palace, city, kingdom) of Jama." The Sumero-Bulgars called these images "Khal-Ja", since the most beautiful shamail hung in the palace of the Sumerian kings, called "Khaldzha" (at the same time, the Bulgars also called Khaldzha Khorezm, since in Khorezm, on the way from Bolgar to Bukhara, there was an abandoned castle, reminiscent of the Khalja palace, and after the adoption of Islam, the king of Jam began to be called by the Muslim name Amin). After the establishment of Islam, jamails, which retained the significance of amulets, began to depict Islamic holy places and write sayings from the Koran. Musa ibn Khalil noted that the “El-Hum” brothers were actively engaged in the manufacture of jamails not only for the Bulgars, but also for the Kyrgyz, Crimeans, Rum Turks, Russians, Ishtyaks, Tatar Kypchaks, Ars and other peoples, and holy places were depicted for the Bulgars Garabstan, stone mosques and palaces of the main Bulgarian cities, and on others - structures familiar to customers (yurts, wooden houses and others).

Jandar - squire, bodyguard

Dzhegulytau ("Mountain with Steep Slopes") - a mountain range in the Samara Bend of the Volga, modern Zhiguli.

Jack Adam - the famous balik-menzel, founded near the village of Sugym at the mouth of the river. White under King Adam (Eden) and named after him. Under Tsar Anbal, he received the name of the village - "Sugym". They jokingly sang about this balinga: "I lost my dear - will I find her in Jack Eden?"

jir - 1) the Bulgarian Upper Volga province, later included in the Kievan Rus and called the "Rostov Land"; 2) Bulgar city - the center of the Dzhira province; 3) the modern city of Rostov.

Jogen - 1) bridle; 2) a string with a seal attached to it (with a royal or bureaucratic sign), tied to a royal or government charter. Therefore, this Bulgar term entered the Russian language in the form and meaning "law". The double meaning of the word "jogen" in the Bulgar language led to the expressions "Keep the people in check" (within the law) and "unbridled" (going beyond the law, permitted).

Joz - district.

Joz-Uba (“One Hundred Rocks”) - the Chusovaya River.

Jock - prayer, sacrifice.

juke - South River.

Juketau - cm. Tukhchi.

Juketun — 1) the modern city of Ustyug; 2) see Tukhchi.

Jun-Kala - cm. Junne-Kala.

Junne-Kala - Bulgarian balik, founded in 922 (Musa ibn Khalil), the modern city of Nizhny Novgorod. It was also called Ibrahim-Balik. The Russians called Junne-Kala "Dzhun-Kala", and in 1220 they built the fortress of Nizhny Novgorod in its place. In 1221-1225, the balik was again under the rule of Bulgaria, in 1226-1237 it was part of the Suzdal land, in 1237-1262 it was again subject to Bulgaria, in 1262 it was captured by Suzdal, in 1237-1445 it became part of Bulgaria, in the fall of 1445 year again captured by the Russians.

Jura - 1) hired warrior, combatant; 2) a service feudal lord.

Jurash (Surezh) - 1) Dagestan and Vainakhstan ("Chechen: Ingushetia"); 2) the eastern part of the North Caucasus.

Jurash people (Surezh) - Dagestanis, Vainakhs ("Chechens" and "Ingush"), Vainakhs have always been allies of the Bulgar state and participated in all Caucasian campaigns of the Bulgars (to Tamya-Tarkhan, Derbent, Azerbaijan and other lands), and Bulgaria, in turn , respected the independence of Vainakhstan - Dzhurash. The Bulgar kings willingly accepted the Vainakh warriors for service inside Bulgaria, and the Vainakh shakirds studied in the Bulgarian madrasahs together with the shakirds from the Kumyk beylik, Kyiv and Chernigov principalities (Kovui, Berendey, Torki, Kara-Kalpaks), Azerbaijan, Georgia (Khondzhaks), Kypchak hordes, Saklan, Iran, Rum, Afghanistan, Khorezm and other lands. According to tradition, the sons of the Vainakh beks served in the Bulgarian city of Madjara Suba (“Mazharov Yurt”), where there were two fortifications (with Burdzhan and Dzhurash garrisons) and three baliks (Burdzhan, Dzhurash and Saklan). The Vainakh bek Nasyr, who commanded the Dzhurash garrison and participated in the campaign against Derbent, helped Emir Otyak escape from Bulgaria, for which Jangi, becoming king, married his daughter to his son Dzhumat. Jumat also served in Madjara Suba, participated in the 1184 campaign against Tamiya-Tarkhan, accompanied Lachyn Khisami to Georgia through his capital Sunja (also called Jumat-Kala). In 1223, already at an advanced age, Jumat went out with all his sons and grandsons to the battle with Subyatai near Majar Suba and died in it, covering the retreat of Bachman with Ablas-Khin. There were 11 cities under the rule of Jumat's grandson Kambar. In 1278, he tried to help Bulgaria and attacked the Tatar garrison in Madjara Suba with the Kumyks and Burdzhan Bulgars, for which the Kipchaks and Russians destroyed five of the eleven Vainakh cities. Husain, a descendant of Kambar, helped Mohammed-Amin annex the Astrakhan Khanate to Bulgaria, and Khusain’s grandson Malik ibn Mamli, together with the Tarkovsky bek Kasym, helped to transport the Bulgarian state archive to Azak (Tuk-Mohammed; he himself visited Vainakhstan and Tarki).

Sofa - royal office, government.

Dima-Tarkhan - cm. Tamya-Tarkhan.

House of Sciences - cm. dar al-ulum.

Duloba - the state of Bek Shambat, which existed on the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania and Transcarpathian Ukraine (from 623 to 658). Shambat in Western Europe was called "Samo", which is why his state is also called the "power of Samo". The Slavs called the state of Shambat "Duleby".

Deber-su - the river Sviyaga, also called Zyuya by the Bulgars.

Dyau (dow, day) - 1) great, huge; 2) div, pagan spirit, alyp (alp).


Yeg Sadum — Norway,

Elbegen - cm. Barage.

Erdim - the Bulgar clan, also called by the Bulgars "Ermi", and in Kievan Rus - "Radimichi".

Ersubul - the ancient Bulgarian name of Jerusalem.


Zhukotin - cm. Tukhchi.

Zhukotinsky principality - cm. Cheremshanskoe Bekstvo.


Zirat (ziarat) - resting place, cemetery; this Bulgarian word comes from the Sumerian word "ziggurat" - "tower-mausoleum of the spirit of Mardukan".


Iber - 1) metal; 2) Bulgar name of areas rich in metals.

Iber - the river Pur in Siberia.

Iberians - Nenets, whom the Bulgars also called Urts.

Ibn (bine) - son.

Ibrahim - cm. Bulgarian,

Ibrahim Balik - cm. Junne-Kala.

Idel - 1) originally - the name of the association of seven genera; 2) the first name of the Bulgar state; 3) Volga from the mouth of the Kama to the confluence with the Caspian Sea.

Ijim - 1) Ishim river; 2) the region, which was included in the composition of Bulgaria in 1141.

ile - province, province

Ilche - 1) regent; 2) a representative of the ruler.

Imen - an island in Konchygysh Dingez, where the Imen bogatyrs continued the tradition of Cretan wrestling tournaments; modern Japan.

Imentsy - 1) the most ancient Manchu-Japanese community; 2) Manchus.

Irdan - lowland.

Ishtyak - Bulgarian province of the epoch of the III emirate.

Ishtyaki — 1) one of the nicknames of the Bulgars; 2) the Kipchak nickname of the Bashkorts; 3) Khanty.


Tavern - 1) gates; 2) gate hotel with a shop; 3) an inn; 4) shop with a canteen.

Boar - stack.

Wild boar (“Stogovoe Lake”) is the modern Lake Kaban in Kazan.

Caves ("Sagittarius") - 1) city militia; 2) a soldier of the garrison subordinate to the Magistrate; 3) a selected infantryman armed with a crossbow or myltykrm; 4) baliki in Bolgar and Kazan.

Cossack - 1) originally - a valiant knight who fought without armor out of disregard for death and vowed not to marry until he had completed a number of military feats; 2) a service feudal lord; 3) see elbir.

Kazan - cm. Kazan.

Kazanka - cm. Arsu.

Kazan il - Bulgarian Middle Volga province of the era of the III emirate.

Kazan Bekstvo - specific Bulgarian principality of the epoch of the II emirate, which was under the rule of the Azanoviches.

Kazanchiy - a large feudal patrimony, sometimes called a lancer.

Kazan - a Bulgarian city, the capital of the Bulgarian state of the era of the III emirate, officially called in 1103 - 1220 "Uchel" ("Three Cities"), in 1220 - 1361 - "Gazan" or "Kazan" ("Kazan"), in 1361 - 1431 - "Bolgar al-Jadid" ("New Bolgar") and from 1431 to the present time - "Kazan" ("Kazan"). The Meadow Mari called Kazan "Komola" (in the language of the Meadow Mari it also means "Three Cities"), the Russians - "Three Cities", "Oshel", "Ochela", "Ashla", "Bolgar", "Kazan", the Chuvash - " Khuzan", the Turks of Siberia - "Ala-Tura", the Kyrgyz - "Uch Tirme" ("Three Cities").

Kazgyn - Bulgarian station on the Ob (to the east of Omek), founded in 1137; modern city of Novosibirsk.

Cala - 1) city; 2) tower.

Kalgan - fortified balik of the city of Kazan.

Kama Bulak - the old name of the canal in Kazan, connecting the Bulak "duct" and the Kazanka River with the Volga since the 12th century.

Kamysh-Samar - the city - the center of the Samara province of Bulgar of the epoch of the II emirate, the birthplace of the Bulgarian poet Saif Saray.

Caen - king, emperor

Caen (Kan-Kerman, Kan-Mardan) - 1) the city of Murom, which was originally part of the Bulgarian province of Mardan-Bellak; 2) Murom Principality,

Kangly - one of the Turkic peoples exterminated by the Mongol khans. The Iranian-Sabans, who initially inhabited the lands between Balkhash and Issyk-Kul, bordered on the Uzi (Oghuz) in the northeast, and on the Kangly in the southeast. Under the influence of these Turkic neighbors, the Saban tribe became Turkic, and in its midst a new Turkic language was formed - “Turkic-Sabanian” or “Bajanak”, from which all the Kypchak languages originated. Part of the Kangly became part of the Sabans after being defeated by the Oghuz.

Kara - 1) west; 2) black; 3) big, large, strong, mighty.

Kara Aral — Ireland. Kara Baltachy - executioner.

Kara-Balyn — Belarus.

Kara-Balyns - Belarusians.

Kara-Bulgar - 1) the ancient name of the Bulgar state, meaning "Great Bulgaria"; 2) Ukraine; 3) the territory of the Kara-Bulgar beylik.

Karajar - Bulgarian city, modern Ukrainian city of Chernihiv.

Karadzhey - 1) crossbow; 2) one of the types of throwing machine.

Kara dingez - the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea.

Kara-Idel - Volga from the source to the mouth of the Kama.

Kara Masguts - Massagets, who migrated to the Scythian steppes of Europe.

Kara Muslims - Bulgars of Russian origin.

Kara-Mush - one of the names of the Beautiful Sword River.

Kara Sadum — England.

Karatayak - 1) the region included in the composition of Bulgaria; 2) Bulgar fortress; it was erected at the place where the leader of the Khons, Alyp-biy, drove a hundred enemies into the ground with a huge club (“karatayak”). During the raid of Berke, the population of the region fled to Inner Bulgaria and received the name "karatai".

Karatun - 1) a crusader; 2) a Christian fanatic.

Guard - watch, guard.

Kara-Ulag — Romania.

Karachays - North Caucasian-Kuban grouping of some Bulgar clans - the ancestors of the Karachays.

Kara-chirmyshi - state pagan peasants, obliged to pay an increased tax either to the state or to the royal house.

Cardingese - Kara Sea.

Katau - 1) notch; 2) a fortified camp; 3) fortress.

Caubuians (kaubiytsy) - Ukrainian grouping of several Bulgar clans, called in Kievan Rus "Kovuyami".

Kaftau - 1) mountains in Sumer; 2) Caucasus mountains.

Cahin priest, shaman

Kashan - 1) Kashgaria; 2) the city - the center of the Kashan province; 3) the Bulgarian province of the era of the 1st emirate.

Kashanians - 1) Kushans, one of the Ur tribes; 2) Kashgarians; 3) the population of the Kashan province of the Bulgar of the era of the city of Kasham of the I emirate.

Kasheki - cm. lady keshe.

Kisan - 1) the city of Ryazan; 2) Ryazan principality.

Kisantsy - Ryazans.

Kichi Shir - Seversky Donets.

Kogul - emerald (hence the name of the city of Cahul, etc.).

Kogul dingez ("Emerald Sea") - Indian Ocean.

Kolsh - horse, stallion

Kolyn - Bulgarian city - the center of the Biysu and Nukrat provinces, founded on the site of the Bulgarian menzel Botuk (according to Musa ibn Khalil, it arose in 866), the modern regional city of Kirov. The Bulgars also called Kolyn "Nukrat", and the Russians - "Khlynov" and "Vyatka".

Konchygysh dingeze ("East Sea") - the Pacific Ocean.

Kortjak - Bulgarian province (with the center in Balyn-Balik) in the era of the 1st emirate on the territory of modern Moscow, Vladimir and Ivanovo regions of Russia.

Koryk - the banner of a part of the army, used by the Bulgars during the battle.

Korym-Chally - a Bulgarian city, the center of the Challa-Cheremshan beylik (beylik) and the Challa-Cheremshan province. In 1556 it was taken and destroyed by Russian troops.

Crash (Kirish) - 1) the island of Crete; 2) a place near the Kyiv fortress, where the Bulgarian heroes liked to fight.

Crash (kuresh) - Bulgarian national wrestling, which arose on the basis of the types of Imen wrestling (juma kuresh, berket kuresh, belas kuresh, elanach kuresh and others); In the old days it was also called "cache" or "hash".

Kuban-su - Huang He River.

Kubar - the island of Cyprus, the birthplace of Alp Kubar.

Kubar-su the river Euphrates.

Cuba-su - Kuban river.

Cook - 1) divine, holy; 2) sky, heavenly; 3) north; 4) blue.

Kukjak - 1) the Kokshaga river; 2) area of meadow mari.

Kukdzhak chirmysh - meadow mari.

Cook dingez - Barents Sea.

Cook-Kuyantau - the mountains on which the city of Bashtu - Kyi - Kyiv was built. They were also called "Kuyantau". From "Kuyan" came the Arabic "Kuyab".

Kul Asma - the Bulgar river, also called Gul-Asma, now bears the name Klyazma. (Kul-Asma yuly is the southern branch of the Artan road to the Baltic states, sometimes called the “Amber Way” (“Garebe yul”).

Cumans - nomadic western Kypchaks, called Russian "Polovtsy".

Kunig - book. From this Old Bulgarian term came the Russian word "book".

Cooper-Kubar Khoper river.

Kurgash — Arabia.

Kurpeshch - 1) clay kiln; 2) brick; from this Old Bulgarian term came the Russian word "brick".

Kursybay - permanent Bulgarian army. Before the battle, the Bulgar army lined up in three lines, with the lancers in the first, medium-armed knights in the second, and the Huzars in the third.

Kush-Urma - Bulgarian balik, the modern city of Kostroma.

Kuyantau - cm. Cook-Kuyantau.

Kyzyl - 1) red; 2) handsome.

Kyzyl kashanly ("beautiful Kashan") - Kashgarian.

Kyzyl Yar - Bulgarian menzel, founded in 1096; now the city of Petropavlovsk (Kazakhstan).

Kyi - cm. Bashtu.

Kypchaks (Kipchaks) - 1) the Iranian name of nomadic tribes speaking the languages of the Kypchak group of Turkic languages; 2) one of the Kypchak tribes.

Kyrgyz - 1) the Bulgar name of the nomadic Kypchak tribes; 2) one of the Kypchak tribes; 3) nomadic ancestors of Kazakhs and Kyrgyzs.

Kysh-Tarkhan is the fabulous Lord of Winter, the son of the Alp-Biki Ashna (Atna) - the patroness of farmers - and the nephew of Bulyar - the patron of shepherds. His first name is Elaur. Once a she-wolf killed a sheep from a shepherd, and he complained to Bulyar. Alp made the she-wolf fall into a trap, but Elaur and his brother freed her. The enraged Bulyar took the boys to a deserted place and wanted to kill them there, but the cranes, who loved Ashna, frightened the alp with their sudden cry and put him to flight. They also informed the she-wolf about the abandoned boys, and she picked up and fed her rescuers along with her cubs. When the brothers grew up, one of them fell in love with a crow and begged Tangra to turn him into a crow Kozgyn, and the other - Elaur - became the Lord of Winter - Kysh-Tarkhan. Crows (Kozgyn with his girlfriend) and mature wolf cubs began to serve Kysh-Tarkhan. Kysh-Tarkhan was depicted with a high pointed wolf's hat (burek) on his head, in a blue fur coat ... and with a staff in his hand, crowned with a silver crescent. The person who played the role of Kysh-Tarkhan in nardugan led the collection of gifts - “donations to Kysh-Tarkhan”. It was believed that Kysh-Tarkhan saves from death and brings good luck on the way, hunting and war (in case of offering sacrifices to him), that he rides around on his wolves. The ravens inform Kysh-Tarkhan about the sacrifices, and if he likes the latter, he sends his wolves and ravens to the aid of the sacrificers.


Laish -Bulgarian city, founded in 1278 by Bek Laish, the son of Emir Boyan-Mohammed; the modern city of Laishev. In 1554 it was turned into a stronghold of the Russian troops, but in the winter of 1555-1556. The Yarchally people took and destroyed the city and, together with the Korymchaly people, united with the army of Mamysh-Birde in Echke-Kazan.

Lachyk (Alachyk) - Uba-Bulgarsky balik, now - the Nizhny Novgorod settlement Lyskovo.

Lachyk (alachyk) - 1) forge; 2) workshop.

Leu- cm. Barage.

Lok - Lukh river; also called Lokyr.


May-yuly (mai-chuly) - a tomb for a noble person, "walking along the path of May (Mardukan)".

Small Room - The Balkan Peninsula and the island of Crete.

Mamil - the ancient Bulgarian name of Egypt, the birthplace of the Alp Baryn-Mamil.

Manara - 1) tower; 2) the minaret of the mosque.

Mardan - cm. Mardan Bellak.

Mardan Bellak - Bulgarian Volga province of the era of the 1st emirate. It was also called “Mardan” and “Bellak” by the Bulgars, and “Muroma” by the Oka Ars (hence the name of the city of Murom).

Mardanians - Bulgars of the Mardan-Bellak province, also called Bellaks.

Mardukan - cm. Bulgarian.

Martouan - the inner citadel of the city of Bulyar.

Martyuba - Bulgar Middle Volga province of the era of the 1st emirate, the predecessor of the Kazan Beylik (beylik) and il; from the name "Martyuba" comes the Russian "Mordva".

Martyubinians - residents of the Martyubinsk province.

maruba — Czech Republic and Moravia.

Masguts - Eastern Scythians-Massagets, one of the tribes of the Ur. The Massagets were also called Dahi, Daiki, Tiku, Turks, and from these names came the name of the city of Tukhchi, the Dzhaik River, the common name of the Turks (since the Turks occupied the territory of the Massagets). The Kytays were the first to adopt the name "Turk", some of whom mixed with the Imens and passed on their archaic Turkic language (Turkic-Hunnic language) to them.

Machin - Southeast Asia.

Menzel - road station with an inn.

Gabdel-Mumina Mosque - Kazan mosque, located in Yugary Kerman.

Mosque "Gulli" - According to one of the owners of the Peter and Paul list, "Dzhagfar tarihi" Petr Karashev "was built on the site of the tomb of Gazan as the Tomb of the Martyrs -" bulumer ". It was crowned with an octahedron decorated with floral ornaments, and therefore it was also called “Gulli”… The Church of Peter and Paul was decorated with exactly the same beautiful octahedral upper floor with multi-colored glass and skillful carvings, which was at the Tomb of the Shehids… At the same time, the quadrangular bell tower fell into disrepair and collapsed, as a result, the wooden Church of the Presentation itself collapsed ... At the same time, Mulla Ibrai announced that the images of leopards and lions in the carvings of the Tesle mosque were made by Russians after they captured Kazan to desecrate the mosque, and personally knocked them down ... After that, our Kryashens stopped to say with a grin about this mosque: "Iman Shakhara - Barys oyasy." Kara-Tun, learning about this, ordered to knock down the plates with wonderful carvings from the gates of the Syuyumbiki tower and build a new Church of the Presentation in the Tomb of the Shehids. By his order… they broke the top of the Tomb of Shehids and built a square instead of it, in order to deprive the mosque and the church of similarities and make the tomb more like a church… My ancestor George participated in the construction of this cathedral. And his ancestor Fazyl from Chebaksov was a student of Mir-Gali himself and was sent with him to build a church in Moscow, where he adopted Christianity and the name Vasily ... My father and I were afraid to show anyone the book of the bakhshi Iman, so that it would not suffer the sad fate of the octahedral top of the Tomb of Martyrs and leopards "Iman Shahar".

Mosque "Mohammed-Alam" (“Kul-Ashraf”) is the main mosque of Kazan. Pyotr Karashev preserved its contour drawing and noted that shortly before the capture of Kazan by Russian troops, Kul-Ashraf ordered the main dome of the mosque to be built on with a small turret with a dome so that it would be equal in height to Ulug Manara (30 sazhens).

Mosque "Otuz" - a mosque in Kazan, which Mullah Sheikh-Mohammed, the son of Ish-Mohammed, showed one foreigner. The Russian official who accompanied the foreigner was not allowed into the courtyard of the mosque, for which he was punished. There was a zirat next to the mosque.

Mizan - the river Mezen.

Min (men) is one of the associations of the Oguz clans.

Misr — Egypt.

Misha - cm. Mush.

Mishary - 1) Bulgars of the Misha region; 2) see modjars; 3) in general, all the Western Bulgars, who were in the category of chirmysh.

modja - cm. Mush.

modjar — Hungary.

Modjars - 1) a grouping of a part of the ancient Hungarian (Ugric) tribes of Kazakhstan, separated from the Ugrian-Bashkorts; 2) one of the names of the Ugrians-Magyars (Hungarians); 3) the Bulgars of the Musha region (Modja, Misha), located between the rivers Oka and Sura; this name also had the form "mishar".

Mosha - 1) "cow" in Bulgarian; 2) the Sukhona river; 3) the Bulgarian name of the city of Moscow, founded by Kan Ahad Moskha in 1088; later received the form "Moscow". Moscow rivers originally bore Bulgarian names: Ulen-Su (Neglinnaya), Avyz-Elga - "Wax River" (Yauza), Yavysh-Idel (Moscow River).

Moskhatau- the region of Meskheti, where one of the Hunno-Bulgarian specific principalities of Georgia was located.

Mumin - the inner citadel of the city of Bolgar.

Mukhsha - the name of a part of the Ugric peoples who lived between the rivers Seim and Sura.

Musha (Musha-Idel) - the Bulgar river, also called "Modzha" and "Misha"; now called Issa (the right tributary of the Moksha River).

Myltyk -gun.

Menhols (menkuly, mapguly) - according to the Bulgar historian of the XV century Mohammed-Amin, this is - 1) the name of a part of the Mongol-speaking tribes; 2) the common name of the Mongol-speaking tribes.

In addition, in the Middle Ages, the Mongols were also called "Tatars" (from the Manchu-Hun "Tatars" - "foreigner", "stranger", "enemy"). Once upon a time, the Imen-Manchus defeated and subjugated the ancestors of the Mongols, and the latter had to call themselves “Imenkul” (“Slaves of the Manchus”) as a punishment. Gradually, this name acquired the forms "menkul", "menkhol", "mangul" (the modern form is "Mongols"). Then part of the Mongols voluntarily went to the service of the Huns, and they began to call her "Biryagan". Over time, she formed a special Mongol tribe, which was headed by the father of Genghis Khan. The Biryagans adopted many words from the Huns, including the original Manchu name Tingiz-Chingiz. All other Mongols who did not serve the Khons were called "Tatars" by the Huns. Since the Biryagans fought on the side of the Huns against the Tatars, the most hostile relations existed between the Biryagans and the Tatars. When the father of Genghis Khan tried to subdue the Tatars, they defeated and killed him. The young Genghis Khan swore that in retaliation for the death of his father he would destroy all the Tatars and did so. After the extermination of the Tatars, their name in the Mongolian language began to mean "dead", "suicide bombers", and all other Mongolian tribes undertook to be called only "manguls" ("Mongols"). A few years later, Genghis Khan ordered the formation of non-Mongol mercenaries for the Mongol army, because the Mongols themselves did not have enough forces for the wars of conquest. These mercenaries had to fight and die for the Mongol army in the first line of attack, so they were called "Tatars" ("suicide bombers"). The first to do this was Subyatai, whom the khan greatly honored, so Chingiz, who hated the name "Tatars", turned a blind eye to this. When the Kypchak steppe separated from the Mongol Empire in 1260 and almost all the Mongols left the Kypchak for Mongolia, the Jochids hired the Kypchak nomads instead of them and began to also call them "Tatars". At the same time, the Kypchaks themselves retained the names of their tribes and preferred to call themselves Kypchak names among their relatives. Khan Uzbek tried to instill in the Kipchaks the word "Turk" instead of the word "Tatar" (which was the last curse among the Bulgars and other Muslims and meant "godless", "damned"). When the Kipchak Horde ceased to exist, many Tatar Kipchaks went to the service of the Balyn (Russian-Muscovite state) and received the name “serving Tatars” from the Uruses (Russians). In Bulgaria, hired Tatar Kipchaks were called "Tatars", "Tatars" ("Tatarchyklar"), "Khan's people", etc.


Narat-Chishma - a large Bulgarian city that produced everything that was needed in the farm of a cattle breeder. Therefore, they said: “If you want to buy a good horse, go to Sulchi-Tarjis; if you want to buy armor, go to Jabli-Simbir; if you want to shoe a horse, go to Narat-Chishma.”

Nardugan (marduan, mardukan, narduan) is the Bulgarian national holiday "Christmas of Mardukan". According to the testimony of Hadji Omar, the participants of the holiday put on masks and were divided into two halves. Some had to defend a snowy town with walls in the form of ice slides, in which there was a doll of the evil diva "Tama-Tarkhan", and others - to break into the Town with a huge stuffed horse, bull or camel made of white matter and at the same time overcome obstacles - stuck in snow points up swords, fires, water in the form of an ice slide and the resistance of the defenders of the snowy town. During the procession with a stuffed animal, which was carried on high sticks or carried on a cart, everyone sang, danced and played trumpets and tambourines. The town was taken without fail, and the doll of the evil diva was hung on a tree, which was sometimes replaced by a pole. At the same time, eggs were taken from a tree decorated with multi-colored ribbons, baskets with eggs and images of a rooster. There were usually a lot of people who wanted to climb a tree behind them. This was followed by the slaughter of sacrificial animals, feasts, fun, evening and night fortune-telling. Youth and children collected gifts in the form of "collecting tribute to Kysh-Tarkhan in honor of the birth of Mardukan (Mar)", the collected food was given to the poor as a festive treat. On this holiday, everyone must have tasted eggs, honey, butter and barley drink. Bakir, powerless to forbid the holiday, achieved only that it was consecrated by reading a prayer. “They say, seeking forgiveness from the Almighty for the people for the celebration of Nardugan, the seid prayed for ten days.” Ribbons on a tree meant fertility, and on the banners - a lot of warriors, bound by loyalty to the leader and discipline into an indestructible army. The custom of Bulgarian girls to wear headdresses made of multi-colored ribbons in a nardugan in order to have many children was preserved by Ukrainian women. Nardugan was celebrated during the December solstice; was borrowed by Christians and remade by them into the "Christmas".

Nugai (Nugaylar) - Nogais. Tuk-Mohammed noted that the Nogais were divided into "old" ("Boryngs"), that is, "indigenous" or "real", and into "new Nogays". The Bulgars considered the old Nogai as their own and often called the Illak (Ilek) Bulgars. Tuk-Mohammed directly writes that the Bulgars not only never fought with the native Nogais, but also, as a sign of their disposition towards them, they called two gates and one of the urams of Kazan “Nogai”. The “new Nogais” were not part of the Nogai ethnos proper, but were composed by the Nogai Murzas from hired “homeless” Kyrgyz for wars with the Bulgars and for settling the Bulgar lands, since the Nogais themselves refused to fight with the half-blooded Bulgars. All those clashes that historians described as the Bulgar-Nogai wars actually took place between the Bulgars and the "new Nogais". So, the army of Idegei was composed almost entirely of the “new Nogais”, and the “Nogais” defeated near Ufa in 1552 were actually robbers of the Kazakh biy Tumak, expelled from Kazakhstan by the Kazakh people themselves. During the Nogai famine, the "new Nogais" went over to the side of the Russians and began to cut the "old Nogais", however, in the end, they themselves were destroyed "without a trace" by the indigenous Nogais.

Nukrat - cm. Kolyn.

Nukrat-su - Vyatka river.

Nur-Suvar - the city - the center of the Volga Bulgar province of the era of the 1st emirate; the Bulgars also called it "Baryndzhar", "Sham-Suar", "Baryntu", the Mongols - "Burunda", the Arabs, Persians, Indians and Turks - "Suvar". There were 4 baliks in Nur-Suvar: Baryndzhar (Baryntu), Sakchy , Ghazan and Jamail. All the poor lived in Jamail, which is why the Kazanchis mockingly called him “Shillik”. At the same time, 11 out of 22 mosques of the city were located in Shilyk-balik and the best carvers of patterns lived. Mosques "Yuzyum" with eight sides and "Dugar-Kan" with three minarets (built with donations from Khan Dugar) were the most outstanding buildings of this balik. Suvar Yorty was also located here, and the balik of Sakchy separated it from the rest of the city.

Nerle-su (“Beautiful River”) is the Bulgarian name of the left tributary of the Klyazma River, from which its Russian name “Nerl” originated.


Oimeks - nomadic eastern Kipchaks, the main ancestors of the Kazakhs.

Omec - originally Bulgarian menzel, founded in 1136, then, from 1140 - Bulgarian balik; now - the city of Omsk.

Osta ("master") - an independent craftsman, the owner of the workshop.

Otuz - cm. Utyz.

Oshel - cm. Kazan.


Pinyache (binedzhe) - a Turkic tribe - one of the ancestors of the Bulgars. Only Shams writes about him. The hurrah was subjugated, and later one half of it went with part of the Bulgars to Sumer, and the other remained in the Volga-Urals. The tribe was called "pinyache" in honor of the Alp rain Pinyache (Binej), who was worshiped from the time of his life in the waterless Khinskaya desert. Neighbors - hurray-dayks - called pinyache "tun". Then this tribe was also called “piryuli”, because after the extermination of their biys by the Turks, the pinyache left alive one young son of their biy, who led the tribe under the names “Piryuly” (“One son”) and Ural-Batyr.

After part of the Bulgars left for Mesopotamia 12 thousand years ago, the Piruli, together with the remaining Ura-Dayks, founded their specific principality “Esegel” in the Volga-Urals, which meant “Salty Country”. The fact is that Ural-Batyr taught his fellow tribesmen to extract salt, and this glorified their land as abundant in salt. The dikes called Esegel and in their own way - "Esetun", since the name "Esetun" was called Ural-Batyra. Part of the Ugrians also entered this principality. 900 years before the time of Aidar, several Masgut clans of Turkestan, defeated by the Khons, migrated to Dzhaik and began to embarrass Esegel with raids. One part of the pie then went to the Scythian Saklans, and the rest were also called Besermen. When the Khons came, the Pirul-Besermens proclaimed their leader Kama-Batyr as their head ... Kama-Batyr ordered to call Idel Bulyar. Even earlier, the Bulgars came from Samar, and parts of them in Scythia united the Vodno tribe with the Scythian pirtyuli, and in Esegel - with the Besermens and Khons. Both of these parts were also called Bulgars. Part of the piruli during the campaign of Aibat (Atilla) to Altyn Bash (Italy) became so weak from diseases that it remained there. Then several more groups of Bulgars moved to them. "As far as I know, they were baptized and consider it their duty to baptize their fellow tribesmen ... for which they constantly send their preachers to the East." Is it not for this reason that Gabdulla ibn Mikayil Bashtu “missed” this message, noting: “I omit much of what the Rum informants spun to my gullible grandfather”? Only Gazi-Baradj preserved the news of Shams about the "pinyach" - "piryuli".

«Complained"(indicative") - official.

Pelmek - Bulgarian national dish.


Room - 1) Byzantine Empire (until 1453); 2) Turkish Empire, Turkey (since 1453).

Rumtsy - 1) originally - Greeks, Byzantines; 2) from 1453 - the Turks.

Russ (Russians, Uruses) - see. uruses.


Saban - a type of plow - a heavy plow.

Saban-kul (“Saban Lake”) is the Bulgarian name of Lake Balkhash.

Sabans - originally one of the Iranian-speaking tribes (the word "Saban" means in Iranian "shepherd"), which later became Turkic and became one of the main ancestors of the Bulgars. The Turkic nicknames of the Sabans are Sabars, Badzhanaks (Pechenegs).

Sabar - cm. Sabans.

Sabers - Khon name of the saber (Ibrahim Bakhshi ...).

Sadum — Scandinavian Peninsula.

Sadumians - 1) all Scandinavians; 2) Norwegians and Swedes.

Saz-Idel - the Pine River, also called "Sasy-Idel".

Saz-Idel Cossacks - Bulgarian name for the Don and Voronezh (Ryazan) Cossacks.

Sain-Idel the lower reaches of the Oka River.

Saklan - 1) Scythian steppe - in the south of Eastern Europe; 2) Eastern Europe; 3) the territory of Ciscaucasia, which was included in the Bulgarian state.

Saklan dingese ("Saklan Sea") - Black Sea.

Saklantau - 1) the Caucasus Mountains; 2) the central part of the North Caucasus.

Saklans - 1) the common name of a number of northern Iranian nomads; 2) Scythians; 3) one of the tribes of Ur.

Saksin (Sakchy) - the Bulgarian Lower Volga province of the era of the 1st emirate, sometimes included in the Mardan-Bellak.

Saksin-Bolgar (Sakchy-Bolgar) - a city, the center of the Saksinsk province, founded in 970 (Musa ibn Khalil).

Salchi - a sailor.

Myself (sham)-abar - "a vessel for the manufacture of medicinal potions."

Samar - 1) Sumer or Sumerstan; 2) the Samara river; 3) the Bulgarian province of the epoch of the II emirate; 4) Bulgarian balik founded in 912 (Musa ibn Khalil); modern city of Samara,

Samarans - 1) one of the tribes of Ur; 2) Sumerians; 3) the population of the Samara province of Bulgaria.

Sarah - white.

Saray al-Jadid - the capital of the Kypchak Horde, built by Gazi-Baradj on the site of Saksin-Bolgar. It was also called simply "Shed".

Saratau - Bulgarian balik, founded in 922 (Musa ibn Khalil); modern city of Saratov.

Sarkel — 1) the Bulgarian name of Babylon; 2) see Khin-Kerman.

Sarsaz - the famous balik, which also bore the names "Bashkort" and "Kosh kyule". He experienced so many disasters that they said about him: "Tired of living in peace - go to Sarsazi."

Sarah - 1) south; 2) yellow, red, light, golden.

Sarah Kapka - a huge three-story gate of the Khan's Court of Kazan (opposite the Khan's palace), the lower tier of which was square, had four large entrances and a source of water. They repeated the forms of "Sary Kapka" Bulyar, Bolgar and other large cities (Musa ibn Khalil).

Sarychin - Bulgarian balik, founded in 970 (Musa ibn Khalil); the modern city of Tsaritsyn (Volgograd).

Sasy-Idel - cm. Saz-Idel.

Serbian (surbi) - 1) Hunnic tribe; 2) Chuvash.

Simbir — 1) Bulgarian balik founded in 866 (Musa ibn Khalil); the modern city of Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk); 2) the Bulgarian province of the epoch of the III emirate.

Sindians - 1) the common name of the ancestors of the Indo-Iranians; 2) Aryans of India; 3) Indians.

Soldier (yuldash) - a hired warrior.

Subashi - privileged state igenchei-Muslims.

Suvarbashi - Member and head of the merchant and craft magistrate of the city.

Suvari - an estate of independent Suvarchi merchants and artisans ("masters", "masters"), which received its name in honor of Alp Suvar. Gazi-Baradj notes that the names "Khursa" and "Kubar" were not the names of two different Alps, but of one Alp Suvar, who was at the same time an Alp and lightning, and blacksmithing, and trade. Alp Kuk-Kuyan was an assistant to Alp Suvar, who oversaw the honesty of trade operations and the safety of roads.

Suvar Iorty - the name of the merchant-handicraft magistrates of the Bulgar cities: Bulyar, Bolgar, Nur-Suvar, Bandzhi, Kazan, Deber (Kazan-Deber), Altish, Narat-Chishma, Bish-Kal-pak, Simbir-Kabak, Jabli-Simbir, Sulchi- Tarjis, Sakchy-Bolgar, Urnash, Syun-Kala, Burtas, Kashan, Echke-Kazan, Tukhchi and others.

Suz-Uryny - Bulgarian balik; modern city of Syzran.

Bitch - plow; from this Bulgarian word came the Russian word "plow".

Sula - Danube river.

Suurly (Suurlamysh) - 1) a river with a drying channel; 2) the Dry Butt River. In 1185, on this river, Prince Igor Novgorod-Seversky defeated the Kuman women, who defended the camp of the Polovtsian Khan KaraTuzy in the absence of men.

Saber - 1) the common name of the ancient Hungarians (Ugrians); 2) a grouping of the Ugric tribes of Siberia, a common ancestor of the Khanty and Mansi; 3) the Bulgar clan, called "northerners" in Kievan Rus.

Saber (Urus-Seber) - the city of Novgorod-Seversky. Seber-su - the Desna River.

Sebers - 1) inhabitants of the forest-steppe; 2) Bulgarian nickname for the Hungarians; 3) one of the Bulgar clans.

Syun-Kala — Bulgarian city, founded in 807 near the watchtower of the Sabanian Syun family at the place of trade of Burdzhan, Saban, Bershud and Ar traders. Signal fires (smoke) were monitored from the tower, warning about the attacks of the Khazars and Modjars of Burtasia.

Surbi - cm. Serbia.

Syuyum-Idel - River Seim.


Tabyl-Katau — 1) the city of Tbilisi; 2) Bulgarian city on the river Sheshma. At first it was called Chishma-Saban, and then it was renamed by Emir Lachyn Khisami to Tabyl-Katau.

Tavysh - a large part of the Bulgar army of the Khon era, which included as many warriors as they heard the cry (tavysh) of their commander; the leader of the tavysh was called tavyshchy or clouds (“Khon kitaby”),

Tamta - Bulgarian Ural province of the era of the 1st emirate, renamed in 1193 to Bashkort

Tamtazai - Zai River.

Tamya - Western part of Ciscaucasia; this name also existed in the forms "Damya", "Temen".

Tamya-Tarkhan - the city of Tmutarakan; its name was also used in the forms "Dima-Tarkhan", "Damya-Tarkhan". Through this city, Bulgar maintained direct contacts with Byzantium and Uzi Yorta (Seljuk Sultanate). In 982, 1015, 1032, 1115, 1140, 1184 and other years, together with the city of Agardzha (Kerch) and the entire Saklan, for some time it was included in Bulgaria. The last time it was part of Bulgaria in 1184 - 1229, subordinate to the Khin-Ker-man bek Badretdin (Ablas-Khin). The largest Bulgarian clan of the city, which led the Suvar Yorty of Tamya-Tarkhan and Agardzhi (Kerch) and owned a number of trading posts in the Kashan province, was the Rumi clan. The founder of this clan was the Greek Rumi, who married a Crimean Goth. Their son was Khudus, named after the mother's tribe (the Bulgars called the Goths Sadums, Galidjians, Almanians, Khuds and Khudus). The son of Khudus was Askal, the son of Askal was Chirkeshe (Chirkes), the son of Chirkeshe was Mas-gut, the son of Masgut was Kolyn, the son of Kolyn was Alyp, the son of Alyp was Abdrazak Rumi. Already Rumi was a Bulgar merchant and went from Bulgar through Khazaria, Tamya-Tarkhan and Tatyak to Byzantium and Baghdad. Suleiman ibn Daud himself gave his name to the son of Abdrazak Rumi. However, Suleiman ibn Abdrazak Binachi, his son Abbas Manarachi and grandson Suleiman Agarja became not merchants, but magnificent architects who built in Bulyar, Bolgar, Bandja and in the Seljuk possessions. The merchant business of Abdrazak Rumi was continued by the younger brother of Suleiman Binachy Said-Mohammed ibn Abdrazak, the son of Said-Mohammed Kylych-Tarkhan, the son of Kylych-Tarkhan Alyp-Suleiman.

Back in 985, Chirkeshe (Chirkes) Rumi, with the permission of Emir Ibrahim, formed the Agardzha-Tamyan army from the Gothic, Karachai, Ukrainian, Western Georgian and Adyghe hired people, to whom he gave his name in the form “chirkes” (“chirkeshe” in Bulgarian meant “wandering , that is, a free man"). The soldiers of this army began to be called Circassians. Western Georgia, which the Bulgars called Tatyak (Tatyak), gave to the Chirkes not only Mingrelians, Georgians and Apas (Abkhazians), but also local Bulgars. The majority of the Chirkes were Anchians, who began to call themselves Chirkes themselves.

In 1220, the Russian and Byzantine rulers organized a robbery attack by the Polovtsian Christian princes on the Seljuk merchants near Agardzha, which almost caused a conflict between Bulgaria and the Seljuk sultan. Kylych-Tarkhan, who then owned Tamya-Tarkhan and Agardzha, managed to settle the matter: he defeated the robbers and executed the captive Polovtsy in the presence of representatives of the Seljuk Sultan, and besides, he persuaded Suleiman Agardzha to build several mosques as a gift to the Sultan.

After the raid of Subyatay in 1229, the Rumi family moved to Inner Bulgaria. A descendant of Suleiman Agardji Ismail repaired the Ismaildan mosque in Bolgar, and his son Urum-Mohammed erected buildings not only in Bolgar, but also in Uzi Yorty and Sarai (at the request of Khan Uzbek).

Tangra is the Bulgarian name for God.

Tartanly - perevolok, channel.

Tatars (Tatar) - 1) "stranger", "enemy"; 2) the nickname of the medieval Mongol conquerors and the Kipchak nomads who served them; 3) "godless person", "enemy of Islam, faith", "atheist"; 4) "bad", "damned".

Tatyak - 1) Western Georgia, Mingrelia and one of the Hunnic-Bulgarian principalities in it; 2) balik - a suburb of Bulyar, founded by immigrants from Georgia and also inhabited by representatives of other Caucasian peoples.

Tiganak - Bulgarian balik, built on the site of the headquarters of the legendary king Khon Erdim or Yermi (VII century BC), the father of the Bulgarian king Burtas. He led a group of Bulgars out of Suvar. It was also called "Khondzhak". Beks Askal and Kermek (X century) were considered descendants of Khon.

Tiptyar - refugee.

Tyrians - Ancient Greek tribes.

trok - Baltic name of Bulgaria and Bulgars. The Balts participated in the Gazi-Baradj campaign against Western Europe.

Tubjak - Bulgarian North Kazakhstan and South Siberian province of the era of the 1st emirate.

Tujun - Ambassador, official on special assignments.

Tui - wedding.

Tun - Northern Dvina river.

Tura - 1) city; 2) craft and merchant part of the city, settlement.

Turan dingese (“Turan Sea”) is one of the Bulgarian names for the Aral Sea.

Turane state (“Turan Yorty”) is the Bulgarian medieval name of the Turkic khakanate of the 6th – early 8th centuries.

Turan tele - Bulgar medieval name of the common Turkic literary language "Turks".

Turgen - a kind of falcon.

Tufang - a gun; from this Bulgarian term came the Russian word "mattress" - "cannon".

Tukhchi - Bulgarian city, the modern city of Chistopol. According to Musa ibn Khalil, it was founded in 922. At first it was called "Tukhchi", and then, in 1219, in honor of the capture of Ustyug, it was renamed Dzhuketun. The name "Dzhuketui" very soon received the folk form "Dzhuketau". Russian chronicles called Tukhchi at first "Tukhchin", and then - "Zhukotin".

clouds - a military leader of several clans, elected for the duration of the war by the people; leader.

Tychkan - an aul founded by the Bulgars in 1141. In 1140, under the protection of Kyzyl Yar, all the Kyrgyz of Turan fled, since the ruler of the Kytays decided to cut out all the Kypchaks to the last and seize Tubdzhak from the State. Kytaev was supported by the Emir of Khorezm, and together they defeated Kara-Khan, an ally of the State, which greatly alarmed the Emir of Kolyn. He sent Alyp and Abdrazak Rumi to the Sultan of Uzes Sanjar with a proposal to jointly put an end to the threat posed by the Kytays. Kolyn persuaded the Sultan to this by ordering to name one of the baliks and the tower of Bulyar after him, as well as to give him a lot of treasures and give the Uzian merchants privileges in trade with the State. Having sacrificed his dream to turn Balyn into a province of the State, Kolyn sent a 20,000-strong army led by Sardar Khalik to Kyzyl Yar. The attack of 80 thousand Kytays on the balik in 1141 was repulsed. When the balik garrison, reinforced by 5,000 riflemen and 70,000 Oimeks and Kypchaks, pinned down the Kytays, the emir's bakhadirs stepped out of the ambush and forced the enemy to hastily retreat. Kursybai did not pursue the Kytays, but followed them to the upper reaches of the Idzhim-su and founded the village of Tychkan there. The Kyrgyz told Gazi-Baraj that this aul had become a holy place for the Chkyr-Kypchaks. They came to the mosque built by the bakhadirs and brought sacrifices to Tangra near it. And if someone tried to pass the mosque without offering sacrifices, then his horses stopped and did not go further (Tselinograd arose in the place of Tychkan, and Atbasar in the place of "stopping the horses").

Sanjar did not use the opportunity, he was late with the invasion of the land of the Kytays and was eventually defeated. But the Khan of the Kytays, frightened by the union of the State with bonds, went to conclude peace with it. He recognized her right to Tubdzhak, and a blissful peace reigned in the East. Kolyn called this world the best of what he had done for the State. At the conclusion of the treaty, the emir was represented by the vizier Sheikh Daud, who therefore received the nickname "Kytai". According to him, he rode 30 versts before the headquarters of the khan through the formation of 300 thousand prancing Kytai horsemen, “with whom no one in the whole world, except for the Bulgars, could be compared in military art. It was from them that the Menkhols learned to fight and later barely defeated them - and even then only because half of the Kytays joined them because of internecine strife.

Temen - 1) division, 10 thousand soldiers; 2) see Tamya.

Tyuba (both) - 1) region, country, province; 2) a territory of some kind.

Tyumen - the city of Tyumen, founded by the Bulgars in 1036 as a trading center of the province of Tubdzhak (Musa ibn Khalil). In 1532, the Bulgar army took Tyumen and forced the Siberian Khan to resume paying tribute to the Bulgar. At the same time, the Siberian prince Takhtagul, the brother of Safa-Garay's wife, was captured. At the request of Safa-Garay, the prince was released by seid-emir Kul-Ashraf and led the guards of the Khan's Court. Captured by Alashey, he wrote in conclusion, following the example of his teacher Mohammedyar, "Shakhri Gazan dastans."

«Turks" - cm. turan tele.

Turkistan — Turkestan.

Turkmen - Turkmen.


Ugek -Bulgarian city on the Volga, also called "Uvek" and "Ukek:".

ugil - Bulgarian family. From this name came the Russian annalistic word "uglichi".

Ugyr - the nickname of the ancient Hungarians, which received the form "Ugry" in Ukraine.

Uzi (Oguz) - Seljuk Turk. The ancestors of the Oguzes were defeated by the Kytays and lost their lands, but in turn captured the land of the Kangly. The Sabans stood up for the Kangly, but were defeated and migrated to the north, to Yaik. The Oguzes occupied the land of the Sabans, but then, when the Huns came here, they went to the Transcaspian.

Uzi Yorty -Seljuk Sultanate

Ulag-Bulgar - Danube Bulgaria, also called "Burdzhan".

Ulag-Kashan - Moldova.

Ulagtsy - 1) Romanesque peoples; 2) Romanians.

Ulak - the nickname of the Slavs, used after the Tatar-Mongol invasion only in relation to the Great Russians.

Lancer - 1) a heavily armed knight of the "first line"; 2) a large feudal lord - Kazan. Ulugbek is the governor. Ulug Bolgar - see Bulgarian.

Ulug Saklan - the Eurasian steppe from the Danube to Altai, also called Desht-i Kypchak ("Kypchak steppe"), the Bulgar kings bore the titles of the kings of Saklan and Desht-i Kypchak.

Ulchians (ulchilar) - Slavs; from this Bulgar term comes the Russian chronicle name "Ulichi".

Hooray - 1) the first name of the Volga-Urals; hence the Bulgarian "uran" - "relative" and battle cry, as well as the names "arya" - "Aryans", "Ural" and "Turan"; 2) the Bulgarian Northern Urals province of the era of the 1st emirate.

Uram - quarter.

Urma - general militia.

uruses (Russians, Russes) - 1) the Massaget family, one of the ancestors of the Ukrainian people; 2) Russians-Ukrainians; 3) Great Russians.

Urtsy - 1) residents of the Ursk province; 2) see Iberians.

Tomb of Gazan (Kazan)-bek - was built in Yugary Kerman in 1236. In its place was later erected a large mosque "Gulli" with the upper floor in the form of an octagonal tower (bakhshi Iman).

utig - Hunnic tribe.

Utyz - the mosque of the Kuraishevsky balik of Kazan. After the defeat of the balik in 1530, it ended up outside its new walls (together with the bazaar and the Pechen courtyard).

Ufa - Bulgar city, one of the capitals of Bulgaria in the era of the III Emirate. Here was the residence of the Ashrafid Seyids, which was called Vasyl Balik ("Fazyl Balik"). Bakhshi Iman, referring to his ancestor and predecessor Musa ibn Khalil (60s of the 15th century), reports the cause of confusion in the information about the founding of Ufa. Gazi-Baradj did not like the clan of Masgut-Insan and therefore did not mention his participation in the campaign against Ryam-Ufa in 1185 and attributed the glory of the founder of Ufa only to the son of Akbalyk Aibalyk-Masgut. In fact, along with Masgut, Ufa was also built by Insan (Akbalyk was Insan's twin brother and gave his son the Muslim name Masgut). Moreover, it was Insan who gave the tsar the idea of founding Ufa, so that he would transfer it from the Mountain side to Tamta. Instead of Insan, one of his sons, Asyl, remained on the Mountain side.

Uchag - bake; the Russian word "hearth" comes from this Bulgarian term.

Uchel - cm. Kazan.

Uchuly (“Three Sons”) is the Bulgar name of the Carpathian Mountains, from which the local Ukrainians were nicknamed “Uchuly”. At first, this was the name of the mountain with three peaks.


farang (frank) - 1) the Bulgar name of the river Rhine and the Rhine Germans; 2) Western European; 3) French, France.

farang dingese (Frankish Sea) - Atlantic Ocean.

Farangstan (Frangistan) - 1) Western Europe; 2) France.


Khazar -Bulgarian military balik, founded by Gilas-Kan in 1035 and inhabited by Saxin Turkmens, whom the Mardans called "Khazars" (hence the name of the city); the modern city of Voronezh. At the end of the 11th century, Kolyn Rumi and other Bulgarian merchants were expelled by the Greeks and Prince Oleg from Tamiya-Tarkhan and Agardzha. A detachment from Khazar made a trip to Tamya-Tarkhan, defeated and captured Oleg and handed him over to the Greeks after they returned their rights, houses and property to the Bulgar merchants (it was taken away by Jewish merchants). At this time, Oleg’s enemy, Prince Vsevolod, bribed the Greeks, and they sent him into exile on the island of Artysh. Then the Greeks released Oleg. The Jewish merchants thought that Oleg would again give them the property of the Bulgar merchants, and they killed Kolyn, but the prince executed the murderers.

Hakan (kagan) - king, emperor.

Khan - elected head, leader, chief, governor.

Khan-Kerman - Bulgarian city, modern city of Kasimov. According to Musa ibn Khalil, it was founded in 926 as a menzel, but quickly became a Mardan balik. Initially it was called "Modjar", "Modjar-Kala". In 985 he was attacked by the Kyiv prince Vladimir, and in 1010 he was ceded together with Kan-Mardan (Murom) by Tsar Ibrahim of Kievan Rus. At the same time, the Bulgars did not leave Modjar, and in the XI-XVI jeks they constituted the overwhelming and dominant majority of the population in it. In 1437, Khan Ulug-Mohammed, “persecuted by everyone” (at one time he studied at the Kazan madrasah “Mir-Gali”, also called “NurTali”) occupied Modjar at the suggestion of the Modjars themselves, renamed the city “Khan-Kerman” and offered the emir Gali-bey recognize him as the khan (head of the union) of Kypchak and Bulgar. Gali Bei refused. Then Ulug-Mohammed turned with the same request to Yabyk-Mohammed, as to the seid, and he agreed - in exchange for the consent of the khan to secretly serve him and support the claims of the seid-emir to the Bulgarian throne. In the same year, Yabyk-Mohammed declared Ulug-Mohammed Khan of Kypchak and Bulgar and named the allied state Ulug Bulgar (“Great Bulgaria”), and the Khan recognized him as Seid Ulug Bulgar and Emir Echke Bulgar and sent his sons Mahmudtek and Yakub to him. In the autumn of 1437, Yabyk-Mohammed, together with the sons of the khan, took Kazan. Gali-bei ended up in zindan, and Yabyk-Mohammed became the emir of the Echke-Bulgarian state - part of the Kypchak-Bulgarian state of Ulug Bulgar Yorty. In 1438, Yabyk-Mohammed sent to Khan-Kerman, at the request of the khan, his best builders, and they built up the city - the capital of Ulug Bulgar - with magnificent stone buildings. In 1445, there were 20 mosques in Khan-Kerman. In 1439, the Bulgar army besieged Moscow and forced it to resume paying tribute to Ulug Bulgar, and in 1445, when the Moscow prince again refused to pay tribute, they defeated and captured him. However, the younger brother of Ulug-Mohammed Kara-Yakub, together with the son of Ulug-Mohammed Kasim, killed Ulug-Mohammed in the same 1445, proclaimed himself the Khan of Kypchak and released the captive Moscow prince from the zindan. After that, Kara-Yakub occupied the right-bank part of Khan-Kerman "Kurmysh". Mahmudtek tried to resist the rebels, but the army of Khan Kara-Yakub, Kasim and princes of Murom and Ryazan subordinate to Ulug Bulgar took the left-bank part of Khan-Kerman "Tash-Balik" and subjected it to a terrifying defeat. Mahmudtek defending "Tash-Balik" and the Bulgar detachment of Gabdel-Mumin in a fierce battle near the city zirat "Yafrak-Tun" mortally wounded Khan Kara-Yakub, but in the end they were forced to retreat to Echke Bulgar. The son of Ulug-Mohammed Yakub, who was in Kazan, also joined the rebellious uncle - Kara-Yakub, released Gali-bey from the zindan and drove Yabyk-Mohammed out. But in the same autumn, Mahmudtek and Gabdel-Mumin, on the orders of Yabyk-Mohammed, again took Kazan, and Gali-bey, who had proclaimed himself the emir of Bulgar, died. After that, Yabyk-Mohammed firmly united the Bulgar state under the rule of the Ashrafid dynasty.

Khanate (khanlyk) - a republic, a state with an elected government, a union of tribes or states.

Haram - a place of "sinful" (non-Muslim) prayer places; from this Bulgar term came the Russian word "temple".

Kharkov - 1) Bulgar clan; 2) Bulgarian balik; now - the Ukrainian city of Kharkov.

Khatyn - 1) the wife of the ruler, governor; queen; 2) wife.

Hin - Northern China, Mongolia and the Baikal region.

Khin-Kerman (Khin) - Bulgarian city, also called Sarkelomi Belaya Vezha.

Khishdek - 1) "frequently changing his place of residence, traveling a lot"; 2) hero, well done; 3) the nickname of the Bulgars of Echke Bulgar and the Kazan region.

Hons - Huns, Manchus, who adopted the archaic Turkic language (Hun language).

Khorasan - 1) Khorasan, Eastern Iran, Afghanistan and the south of Central Asia; 2) the Samanid state.

Khorezm Sea - Aral Sea.

Horymy (“House in soot”) is the Bulgarian name for a Russian dwelling (heated “in black”), from which the Russian word “mansions” originated.

Khorysdan - Bulgarian city in Ukraine, the modern city of Putivl. The Bulgars also called it "Batavyl", that is, the "Princely Headquarters", which is why the modern name of the city "Putivl" arose. It was also called "Korosten" (distorted "Khorysdan").

Hot - Hunnic tribe.

Hood-Imen - settlements of the Balts on the Bakhta River near the oak "Khud-Imen".

Khudtsy - Goths.

Humyks - North Caucasian grouping of some Bulgar clans - the ancestors of the Kumyks.

Hurea - 1) Alp of fire and blacksmithing; 2) Bulgar balik - the center of iron ore mining in Kara-Bolgar; modern city of Kursk.


Bish-Baltinskaya Church was located on the right bank of the Kazanka, near its mouth.


Chalap-Kerman - Bulgar balik at the confluence of the rivers Dzhaik (Ural) and Illak (Ilek), also called Dzhaik, Illak, Orda-Bazar and was in 960-1236 the center of the Illak district of the Badjanak region of the Mardan-Bellak province. The Bukhara trade route from Khorezm to Bulgar passed through it. Dissatisfied with the transfer by Altynbek of part of the Illak region with the city of Kargaly to the Bashkort province, the Illaks in 1235 went over to the side of Gazi-Baradj. In 1278, Illak became part of the Kypchak Horde, but with the rights of an autonomous Bulgar principality of Illak-Bulgar. The famous Horde-Bulgarian fair Orda-Bazaar was held here. Under the Bulgarian emir Fazyl (Vasyl)-Bulum (XIV century), Chalap-Kerman returned under the authority of the Bulgar state as an autonomous region, in honor of which Bulum takes the name Ordu. In 1437, under an agreement with the Nogai Horde, Illak was declared a joint Bulgaro-Nogai possession. Bulgar merchants, customs officers and local cattle breeders lived in it, but the city was deprived of fortifications and garrison. Part of its land was used by the Nogais for free for grazing, fishing, camping and travel. In the governorship of Mohammed-Amin and Shah-Gali, it was temporarily part of the Kazan il Bulgar. In the winter of 1550-1551, the "new Nogai" captured Chalap-Kerman, which started the Bulgaro-Nogai war.

When the "Nogai famine" began, seid Khusain allowed the Cossacks who served him to occupy the city. Mikayil Pan ruled here for some time. In 1582, Mir-Kula became the Bulgar governor of Chalap-Kerman. After the departure of Sheikh-Gali, Mir-Kula submitted to the Russian Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich and adopted Christianity in order to preserve his atamanship. Its Bulgar Cossacks, who were partly Christians or accepted this faith, laid the foundation for the Yaik (Ural) Cossacks.

Chally-Kala - the modern city of Belgorod.

Chally-Cheremshan - the name of the specific Bulgarian beylik-principality of the epoch of the II emirate and the province of the epoch of the III emirate. Chally-Cheremshan was also called "Cheremshan" and "Zhuksta Principality".

Chalmat - the name of one of the types of Bulgarian banners, which had the shape of a turban-shaped ball on a staff with multi-colored ribbons.

Chebaks - a Bulgarian city, one of the largest centers of the Bulgar weaponry of the era of the III Emirate, along with Shaimardans (Iske Yort), Kebe-Kuzy, Echke-Kazan, Baraj and Kory Challami (Yana Cheremshan).

Cheremshan - 1) Cheremshan river; 2) see Chally-Cheremshan.

Jurcheni a confederation of Manchurian tribes.

Chin - Southern China.

Chirmyshi - 1) state peasants liable for military service; 2) militias, soldiers; 3) see guzar; 4) "men" (in the jargon of Kazanchis).

Chuar - Bulgar city, modern Pestrets. It was founded by Yanchuro and Galikai on Mesha in 1553 and was named in honor of its different (“motley”) people. Destroyed by the Russian army in 1554.

Chuen - cast iron; from this Bulgarian term came the Russian word "cast iron".

Chulman - the Kama River from its source to the mouth of the Belaya River (since the 14th century, sometimes - the entire Kama).

Chulman dingese ("Chulman Sea") - the Arctic Ocean.


sham — Syria.

Shambat - cm. Bashtu.

Shamlyn - Bulgarian balik, the modern city of Smolensk.

Sham-Suar - cm. Nur-Suvar.

Sherejiry - incendiary Bulgarian shells, called in Kievan Rus "shereshirs" or "Besermensky (Bulgarian) fire".

shillik - 1) Bulgarian holiday; 2) land tax.

Shire - 1) the Tigris River; 2) Don river.

Shud - Bulgar province of the era of the 1st emirate on the lands of the Veps and Mary.

Shuds - Veps, Merya.


Ystambul (“Marble City or Strait”) is the Bulgarian name of Istanbul.


Elbek - the original name of the Bulgarian city of Tarki, built by the Bulgarian merchant Elbek bine Burdzhan bine Bulat Mizan for his son-in-law - the leader of the Kumyk Bulgars Tarak in 1030 for his accession to the Bulgar state. The luxurious palace of Taraka in the center of the city was called "Tarak-iy". One of the descendants of Tarak at the end of the 12th century renamed "Elbek" into "Tarak-iy", but took the old name of the city "Elbek" as his name. From the name "Tarak-y" it turned out "Tarki". Elbek participated in the campaign of Lachyn Khisami to Tmutarakan in 1184, in the planting of this emir on the Georgian throne, in the defeat of Prince Igor Novgorod-Seversky in 1185, survived the invasion of the Tatars and died in 1228. In 1223, Subyatai defeated Bachman near Tarki, but could not take the city and was forced to bypass it. In 1229, Subyatai again attacked Tarki and this time defeated the city. Elbek's cousin Yadkar, who ruled after him, was killed by the Tatars. Elbek's son Djura was held as a hostage in Saray for some time. Here he wrote a song based on the motives of "Shan kyzy dastany" and "Kyssa-i Yusuf". He dedicated this song to the daughter of Yadkar Altynba, whom he was in love with:

In a mountain cave

You can hide from the sun

But do not hide from your love.

You can't see the dawn from here

But I'm waiting for you, like no one, and here.

The Idel current is so strong

Like the love of Yusuf and Zuleikha,

Like my love for you.

You are beautiful, black-browed and stately,

But will the Almighty unite us?

When I dozed under a flowering tree -

I saw you in a dream.

You are so beautiful that it seems

That you are not earthly

A gift from heaven.

You are brighter than the sun and moon

And only heavenly houris can

Compare with you.

The Almighty alone knows

How I love you,

But what is destined for you

Will of the Almighty?

During the absence of Dzhura, the Tatars wanted to take Altynba to the harem of the Mongol Khan, but she committed suicide.

Elbir - Warrior of the "second line". It was also called bakhadir, from the XIII century - a Cossack.

Emir - leader, ruler, prince, member of the ruling house of Bulgar, bek close to the throne. The title "emir" was used in Bulgaria in the meaning of "king".

Esegel - 1) "temple city" in Sumer; 2) caste of servants of the "temple city", priests; 3) priest. This term was also used in the form of "askal".

Esegel - Bulgarian specific principality in Zakamye. In 922 it was liquidated.

Eteshch - Kazan mosque, built on the site where the idol of Syntau or Syntash once stood, on the Tsar's meadow, between Kuraishev balik and the Volga in 567 AH. Officially called "Iman Shahar". Its minaret was used as a lighthouse. Since it was brightly colored, it was also called "Tesle" - "Colorful" (Musa ibn Khalil). It contained the tombstone of Kul-Ashraf (bakhshi Iman), later transferred to the Iske Tash mosque built nearby (the owner of the list of the arch is Karashev, record of 1837).

Echke Bulgar ("Inner Bulgaria") - the central part of the Bulgarian state, concluded between Sviyaga and Sheshma, Mesha and Samara Luka. Sometimes Echke Bulgar was called "Mardukan" ("Marduan") and included only the Bulgarian and Suvar provinces.

Echke-Kazan - cm. Archa-Kala.


Yugary Kerman - the inner citadel of Kazan.

Yul - 1) street; 2) road. In Kazan, the streets leading from the gate to Yugary Kerman often bore the name of the gate.


Yar Chally - Bulgar city, originally - a military balik; the modern city of Naberezhnye Chelny. He was famous for his fair "Satyk Yar", held at the site of "Yar jiena". In 1181, its garrison entered the battle for the first time and utterly defeated a large detachment of Novgorodians, who had previously ruined the Alamir-Sultan.

Yau tagan (tagan) - Bulgarian throwing machine.

Yauchi - cm. Boryn.

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