ANDThe life of the entire modern society and each of its members in particular is marked by rapid transformations, with current knowledge in one or another field of education, science, economic activity or social relations coming to the fore. That is why, in order for the acquired knowledge not to become outdated, a person must improve his personal knowledge continuously and non-stop throughout his life.
The transformations that arose as a result of the formation of an information technology society and the supremacy of a pragmatic economy affect not only the education system, but also all aspects of human life. Knowledge and education become the core component of social potential and are the most important condition for the effective functioning of the individual.
Education makes it possible to more successfully overcome critical situations and stressful moments in life, as well as quickly adapt to changes. The very rapidity of today's changes forces us to constantly improve our qualifications, improve our professional skills and continuously gain new knowledge. This article discusses the basics of the concept of lifelong education, as well as the place, role and significance of graduate school in the context of the idea of lifelong learning.
1. Basics of the concept of lifelong education
In scientific works devoted to the problems of the idea of lifelong learning or lifelong education, the latter is interpreted primarily as a continuous accumulation of knowledge carried out throughout the entire life course. Training is flexible, variable, optional and is carried out throughout the life of the individual in a variety of locations.
In contrast to the traditional model of education, which emphasizes the importance of preparation for a profession, retraining and advanced training, the concept of lifelong education is aimed not so much at improving professional skills, but at the comprehensive development of the individual, facilitating its adaptation to the changing realities of life and successful self-realization in society.
The evolution of the “concept of lifelong education” (CLE) demonstrates a transition from a pragmatic view of learning as a tool for achieving certain goals to an understanding of education as a valuable, meaningful and internally motivated process of personal growth.
For several decades, educators have identified three aspects of lifelong learning. Vertical education primarily implies systematic schooling, including levels from preschool institutions to higher educational institutions, as well as the training of scientific personnel. Horizontal education is implemented through various out-of-school forms of education. Advanced education presupposes educational activities as an integral component of lifestyle, including leisure activities, throughout the entire life course.
Thus, the idea of lifelong education implies ensuring consistency and regularity of educational activities throughout life, and also emphasizes the multidimensional and comprehensive nature of education. That's why more and more people are talking about learning in all circumstances.
The concept of lifelong education is based on four fundamental principles:
- Mastering the means of comprehending the truth, rather than mastering ready-made information and packaged information.
- Acquisition of current and promising professional skills, as well as the ability to adapt acquired knowledge to the transforming realities of work.
- Teaching the “art” and skills of coexistence - mastering methods of resolving contradictions, comprehending the diversity of human individuals and cultures, improving social and personal potential.
- Self-improvement through education - stimulating the harmonious development of all facets of the human personality: intellectual, physical, emotional, aesthetic and spiritual
Continuing education is designed to develop the creative potential of the individual, its adaptability and compliance with the surrounding reality, which contributes to the formation of the individual’s resilience in the conditions of post-industrial reality by improving skills, such as:
- ability to act in situations of uncertainty;
- communication between representatives of different social groups and cultures;
- the art of dialogue and finding compromises.
Therefore, the Concept of Lifelong Education places emphasis on developing the ability to continuously learn and apply acquired knowledge throughout life in real situations.
As a result, the CCW can take part in resolving issues of a particular person that go beyond the scope of limited utilitarian tasks. Ideally, the paradigm of lifelong education is designed to include all forms of learning - from preschool to old age, covering institutional, extra-institutional and independent educational practices.
The leading guiding principle here is intended to be the learning individual himself, considered as an active participant in the cognitive process. This approach emphasizes the need to ensure truly equal access to high-level education for all students.
Within the framework of this concept, the distinction between institutional and extra-institutional educational practices is of fundamental importance, since the division is based on the nature and location of the learning process.
Institutional training is carried out mainly within educational organizations and vocational training centers, which, as a rule, leads to the receipt of officially recognized diplomas and qualifications.
In turn, extra-institutional training, although also aimed at acquiring knowledge and skills, is implemented by structures whose main task is not educational activity. Such learning is often spontaneous and without a pronounced emphasis, but it can enrich a person with valuable skills, knowledge and certain useful skills.
2. How to ensure the implementation of the concept of lifelong learning
In the era of globalization, the flourishing of a pragmatic economy, as well as the information technology and telecommunications revolution, the concept of lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important in the educational systems of many countries around the world.
The continuing education initiative is based on providing opportunities for the acquisition of knowledge to people of all ages and at all levels, regardless of the type of educational institution. This is an indispensable tool that allows you to continuously increase your intellectual knowledge and adapt it to changing realities.
The traditional scheme of entering professional life through secondary and higher education, culminating in obtaining an academic qualification, is gradually giving way to a model of formalized lifelong learning.
What can contribute to the real and comprehensive implementation of CCW into practice.
In order to create a culture of learning, education must be given the highest priority:
- Increasing the coverage of children with preschool education, which lays a solid foundation of knowledge.
- Developing skills and motivation to learn during compulsory school education.
- Expanding and diversifying secondary education opportunities.
- Adapting offers in the field of higher education to demand in the labor market.
- Improving systems for assessing and recognizing qualifications acquired through non-formal and casual learning.
- Modernization and development of adult education.
To advance basic skills you need:
- Identification of key skills and specializations in demand in the modern knowledge society.
- Emphasis on the inclusion of basic skills in compulsory educational programs.
- Ensuring the development of fundamental skills for all groups, including disadvantaged groups.
- Strengthening the practice of countering unreasonable academic failure and unalternative dropout of students.
To increase universal access to information and advice about educational opportunities, it is necessary to:
- Improving the quality of advice and information about training opportunities.
- Development of cooperation between the public and private sectors in the field of consulting, career planning and personal development.
- Improving consulting services using technological capabilities for information exchange and communication.
To increase the flow of investment in education, both in time and in financial terms, it is necessary:
- Scaling up investment in human capital through public and private financing.
- Development of entrepreneurship by stimulating initiative and creativity in the educational process.
- Identifying factors that motivate people to get an education.
- Promotion of various educational areas.
- Development of open and distance learning, allowing adults to combine study with work and other responsibilities.
To develop innovative approaches to learning and teaching, it is necessary to:
- Promotion and development of new teaching and learning methods taking into account the capabilities of modern technologies.
- Creation of diversified educational offers, including in multimedia formats, meeting the needs of students, representatives of the world of work, society at the local, regional and national levels, with optimal use of available resources.
The theses presented above will be effective if there is a truly wide choice of educational opportunities, which can be provided by comprehensive support for the development of local educational institutions, their accessibility, as well as the development of high-quality and effective educational offers using the potential of information and communication technologies.
3. The place of graduate school in the process of continuing education
Lifelong learning is one of the most important functions of universities and institutes, stemming from their mission to promote it, therefore postgraduate education is an important element of formal education that fits perfectly into the concept of lifelong learning.
Based on the main goal of postgraduate study, that is, the preparation of highly qualified scientific and pedagogical personnel capable of independently setting and solving current scientific problems, conducting original scientific research and obtaining new scientific results, postgraduate study often initially assumes the continuity of acquiring new knowledge throughout life. It is this fact that makes graduate school one of the key milestones in the concept of lifelong education.
The standard period of study in full-time graduate school is 3 or 4 years, in part-time - 4 or 5 years, and the learning process itself is structured by years with a gradual increase in complexity and responsibility. We can say that graduate school is a form of higher education, which by its nature is of a pronounced academic nature.
Studying in graduate school on the basis of modern educational institutions is not only a full-fledged educational process using information and telecommunication technologies, but also the opportunity to take part in diverse scientific and scientific-practical internships around the world. Let us consider some of the nuances of training highly qualified personnel using the example of organizing the educational process at the International Institute of Informatization and Public Administration named after. P.A. Stolypin (MIIGU named after P.A. Stolypin), located in Moscow.
Organization of training in graduate school MIIGU named after. P.A. Stolypin is a full-time student, which in some way limits the circle of participants in the educational process, but on the other hand, it raises the quality of the learning outcome to a higher level.
Postgraduate studies at a higher educational institution have a diverse nature of educational areas, including such profiles as “Economics” and “Jurisprudence”. Applicants are offered high-quality training in accordance with the institution’s program, focused on a range of scientific specialties, including the most in demand, such as Private Law Sciences, Economic Theory, Finance and others. In this case, a wide choice based on the true interests of the applicant serves as an additional incentive to obtain the maximum amount of topical knowledge.
The main task of an educational institution is to organize the educational process in order to provide the student with maximum opportunities for obtaining and qualitatively assimilating new knowledge. To achieve this goal, the postgraduate training program also provides for in-depth study of special disciplines, mastery of modern methods of scientific research, as well as preparation for passing exams with content that includes the candidate minimum.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that special attention in the graduate school of MIIGU named after. P.A. Stolypin is devoted to the student’s independent research work on a chosen topic under the guidance of a supervisor. The result of this many years of work may be the preparation and successful defense of a Ph.D. dissertation.
In addition, graduate students take part in the educational process of the department, while gaining valuable teaching experience. The knowledge and skills acquired by students in the educational process do not become closed, since at the end of each year of study, graduate students report on the work done as part of an intermediate certification.
Thus, postgraduate study, regardless of the form of study, is that type of postgraduate education that assumes that acquiring new knowledge and constantly updating existing knowledge is the main task facing the student, which in practice ideally fits it into the concept of lifelong learning.